Understanding the Gender Pension Gap in Canada on CP24

#DYK “Understanding the #GenderPensionGap in Canada is a report that examines the roots of the gender pension gap, providing a detailed look at how Canada’s retirement income instruments operate to convert gender wage gaps and gendered hours of paid work into lower pensions for women.

Thank you to CP24 for highlighting this important report.

Understanding the Gender Pension Gap in Canada on CP242024-05-27T08:30:53-05:00

Gender Wage Gap in Ontario Varies by Municipality

On World Cities Day we reflect on the ways women across Ontario are uniquely impacted by the gender wage gap. The gender wage gap persists in Ontario, no matter how it is measured. The hourly wage gap sits at 13 percent as of 2022, only six percentage points less than 1998; this means that, on an hourly basis, women make 87 cents on average for every dollar made by a man. While the gap persists it varies by sector, sub sector, and even geography.

Last year the BBC published the article Why young women earn more than men in some US cities which considers factors that may contribute to women achieving pay equity or out-earning men in certain US major cities. I was curious if the factors identified in the US applied to cities across Ontario.

From the article we learned that municipalities with higher levels of women with post-secondary education seem to be more likely to have a smaller gender wage gap. Another contributing factor to the wage gap, according to the BBC, is predominance of female-dominated industries. Jurisdictions with a greater number of industries with female-job classes tend to have smaller wage gaps (and vice versa). Average age of motherhood also seems to be a factor: women who are mothers tend to make less, on average, than women without children and US jurisdictions where the average maternal age at first birth is lower tend to have wider gender wage gaps (unfortunately, city-level data is not currently available for maternal age in Ontario, but you can read more about the impact of motherhood and unpaid domestic labour here). In addition to the factors suggested in the above BBC article, we also know that the gender wage gap is often larger for racialized and newcomer women.

When we take these indicators and apply them to Ontario jurisdictions (particularly jurisdictions with notably higher or lower gender wage gaps), we can get a better understanding of how they can contribute to income discrepancies between men and women across the province. Using data from Statistics Canada we analyzed just under 50 municipal jurisdictions across Canada. Of course, the data isn’t perfect, but did provide interesting insights that warrant greater research. Below we’ll share what we learned about 3 Ontario Municipalities, Elliot Lake, Leamington, and Petawawa.

Elliot Lake is a city in Algoma District that was previously a mining town in the 1950s and produced most of the world’s uranium for decades. As most of the mines shut down, the main industries today are cottaging and tourism. With women on average making 92% of what men make, the wage gap is approximately 17% smaller in Elliot Lake than the rest of Ontario.

Almost 90% of people living in Elliot Lake were born in Canada. In addition, only 3% of individuals in Elliot Lake identify as a visible minority – this is 31% less than the percentage of the population that identifies as racialized in Ontario. Approximately 24% more of the population speaks one of Canada’s official languages as their first language when compared to the rest of the Ontario. While they are imperfect indicators, we know that newcomer women face greater barriers in the workforce; therefore, being born in Canada, not being a racialized individual, and speaking one of Canada’s official languages as a first language may contribute to women’s economic success in this jurisdiction.

However, while postsecondary education attainment levels appear to be a determinant of a smaller wage gap, only 41% of men and 50% of women aged 25 to 64 years old have a postsecondary certificate, diploma, or degree in Elliot Lake. Additionally, only 9% of men and 15% of women aged 25 to 64 years old in Elliot Lake have a bachelor’s degree or higher. Although women still report higher rates of educational attainment than men, the rates of post-secondary education for both men and women are significantly lower in Elliot Lake than the rest of Ontario, which is not aligned with what we might expect.

Looking at another jurisdiction, in Leamington, the gender wage gap is almost 86%, over 10% lower than the rest of Ontario. Leamington is one of Ontario’s southernmost towns and is the second largest municipality in Essex County.

Leamington has significantly lower educational attainment levels than the provincial average for both men and women, which is surprising considering the low gender wage gap. Also surprising is the predominance of male-dominated industries: agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting jobs make up just under 19% of the labour force, and account for 20% of male jobs and 16% of female jobs in the jurisdiction. In comparison, this same industry sector accounts for just over 1% of Ontario’s entire labour force. The second largest industry in Leamington is manufacturing which is also made up of predominantly male job classes, and it makes up almost 18% of the jurisdiction’s labour force.

Fewer women are part of the labour force in Leamington – the participation and employment rates for women are both significantly lower than the rest of Ontario.

Finally we can look briefly at Petawawa, who on the other end of the spectrum has a significantly higher gender wage gap than the rest of Ontario. Petawawa is the largest community in Renfrew County and is known for its access to natural resources and strong military history and involvement. In Petawawa women make 53% of what men make on average, making the wage gap 22% larger than the Ontario average.

Petawawa has a significantly lower number of immigrants than the rest of Ontario (just over 6% of the population identify as immigrants, which is 24% lower than the average in Ontario) and a low percentage of the population identifies as a visible minority (just over 6% for both men and women, approximately 28% lower than the rate in Ontario).

Additionally, a much larger percentage of the population of Petawawa spoke one of Canada’s official languages as a first language, when compared with the Ontario average. While we might expect that a lower number of newcomers and racialized individuals may contribute to a lower wage gap, we also know that this is only one of many factors.

In Petawawa, 59% of the population aged 25 to 64 years old has earned a postsecondary certificate, diploma, or degree, which is almost 10% lower than the average in greater Ontario. These numbers drop significantly when looking at percentage of the population with a Bachelor’s degree or higher: only 20% of the population of Petawawa has achieved a Bachelor’s degree or higher (almost 17% less than the provincial average) and only 15% of men and almost 27% of women have done the same. The lower levels of university education may be a factor contributing to the larger gender wage gap in Petawawa.

Turning a spotlight on a handful of Ontario jurisdictions can help us understand the factors that may be contributing to rising or falling gender wage gaps. Perhaps surprisingly, many of these factors seem to be in opposition to what we might expect, or they don’t seem to paint the full picture. The examples above remind us that indicators such as education, industry, and immigration status are only a starting point in understanding why the gender wage gap exists, and how we can lessen it. With seventy percent of the gender wage gap remaining unexplained, we need more research on factors that may be contributing to the gender wage gap and we need a commitment to closing these data gaps.

To learn more about factors that may contribute to women’s access to economic and personal security in cities across Ontario (and Canada), read the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternative’s report, The Best and Worst Places to be a Woman in Canada 2019

Gender Wage Gap in Ontario Varies by Municipality2023-10-31T11:30:56-05:00

Statistics Canada’s Census 2021 update reminds us that the Gender Wage Gap is complex

TORONTOSept. 18, 2023 /CNW/ – Using average hourly wagesStatistics Canada data from the Labour Force Survey unveils that in 2022, female employees in Ontario earned $0.87 (or 13%) for every dollar earned by their male counterparts. The average hourly wage gap has narrowed by 6 percentage points since 1998 when women earned $0.81 for every dollar earned by men. Hourly wages are useful for showing the gap based on number of hours worked. The gap shown by average annual earnings shows the gap for jobs that can include performance-based pay, so typically shows a wider gap.

“Census figures about the gender wage gap are just one indicator of wider gender inequalities in the labour market,” says Kadie Ward, Commissioner and CAO of the Pay Equity Office. Commissioner Ward highlights the need for continued efforts to understand and address systemic factors that contribute to these disparities.

Marginalization compounds the gap

The data on average annual income reveals varying gaps across different racial backgrounds. For instance, Arab women face the largest gap at 47%, while Chinese women experience the smallest at 25%. On average, the gender wage gap narrowed by 3% for racialized populations between 2016 and 2021.

During the same period, Indigenous populations in Ontario experienced an increase in average annual employment income, with the gender wage gap narrowing by an average of 4% across all Indigenous populations, and totalling 39%.

Similarly, people living with disabilities in Canada face a substantial wage gap, with women living with disabilities earning $25,900 CAD less per year than men living without disabilities. This translates to an average annual gender wage gap of 43%.

What we do and don’t know about the Gender Wage Gap

30 per cent of the gap can be explained by measurable factors such as education, job tenure, part-time vs. full-time work, public vs. private sector work, firm size, unionization rates, occupation, industry, and demographics. 70 per cent of the gap remains unexplained by current research methods.

From 1998 to 2018, the rise in women’s educational achievements has emerged as a pivotal factor in reducing the gap. Statistics Canada research indicates that the increase in women’s educational attainment contributed to a 12.7% reduction in the median annual gender wage gap over this timeframe. This trend underscores the importance of education as an agent of change, contributing significantly to women’s empowerment.

Another historical factor influencing the gender wage gap has been occupational segregation. As women have made strides in breaking through occupational barriers by moving into male-dominated fields, their increased representation in higher-earning occupations has directly contributed to narrowing the gender wage gap.

The occupations with the largest gains in closing the gender wage gap over the last decade in Ontario were natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations (by 10%); management occupations (by 9%); and occupations in manufacturing and utilities (by 6%).

Learn more about the unmeasured 70% of the gap

While the progress is evident, challenges persist. Collaborative efforts between public and private sectors, as well as individual awareness and action, are integral to making substantial positive changes and achieving parity in earnings. Building on the success of season one of the Pay Equity Office’s award-winning podcast, the second season of Level the Paying Field was launched earlier this year. The second season convenes leading experts and renowned researchers to uncover the hidden biases that contribute to unexplained pay gaps. Through the series, Ontario’s Pay Equity Office seeks to highlight how data and research can seed meaningful conversations around gender inequality and drive change.

Join the Pay Equity Office in elevating the equity conversation to make the world a more equitable place for women to work, live and thrive and support closing the gender wage gap. Visit our web site at www.payequity.gov.on.ca, watch episodes of Level the Paying Field at www.levelthepayingfield.ca or listen wherever you get your podcasts.

Quick Facts:
  • The gender wage gap (GWG) is the difference between wages earned by men and wages earned by women. There are different ways to measure the GWG.
  • In Ontario, the GWG calculated on the basis of average hourly wages is 13%. This means that for every $1.00 earned by a male worker, a female worker earns 87 cents. Calculated using average annual salary earnings, the GWG is 25%, or 75 cents on the dollar. The gap is even wider for Indigenous women who earn 61 cents on the dollar, and women of colour who earn 62 cents.
  • In Ontario, the hourly wage gap has narrowed six percentage points since 1998 to 13 per cent in 2022 when looking at average hourly wages. This means, on an hourly basis, women make 87 cents on average for every dollar made by a man.
  • Research shows that factors such as education, job tenure, part-time vs. full-time work, public vs. private sector work, firm size, unionization rates, occupation, industry, and demographics, can only explain about 30 per cent of the gap in Ontario. Seventy per cent of the gap remains unexplained. This unexplained portion may be due in part to factors such as gender discrimination and societal expectations and constraints.
Statistics Canada’s Census 2021 update reminds us that the Gender Wage Gap is complex2023-09-19T13:50:45-05:00

Ontario Pay Equity Office: Canada’s Gender Wage Gap has narrowed but the Gender Pension Gap has not

A new analysis published by Ontario’s Pay Equity Office (PEO) finds women in Canada, on average, received 18% less retirement income than men in 2020. This gap is three percent higher than the 15% gap observed in 1976, the earliest year for which data is available (Statistics Canada). While this Gender Pension Gap (GPG) has fluctuated over the decades, it has not narrowed.

Unfortunately, the GPG is a persistent global phenomenon. The average GPG across 34 member countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) was 25.6% (OECD, 2021). Domestically, a GPG can be observed in every province in Canada, with the narrowest gap in Prince Edward Island at 13% and the widest gap in Alberta at 23% in 2020 (Statistics Canada). When looking at the gap through an intersectional lens, a GPG is observed in all visible minority groups, with the narrowest gap between Japanese women and Caucasian men at 24% and the widest gap between West Asian women and Caucasian men at 64%.

Kadie Ward, Commissioner and Chief Administrative Officer of the PEO believes these findings warrant attention. “We see that the Gender Wage Gap (GWG) has narrowed with time. Meaning, women’s wages in Canada have steadily increased with time to be closer to that of men’s, although the gap has not closed completely. A natural assumption would be that with increased wages, the pension gap would also begin to close with time, but this does not appear to be the case”.

Indeed, Canada’s GWG has narrowed over the decades and women’s labour force participation has increased. As more women work and earn an income, they are also contributing financially towards their pensions. And yet, women are receiving significantly less retirement income than their male counterparts. Although the GPG is still an under-researched topic, there are several possible explanations for why the GPG persists. As pension payouts largely depend on the financial contributions of workers, deeply seated gender norms and discriminatory practices may help explain the gap. Women are more likely to work fewer years than men over the course of their careers as they exit the labour force (either temporarily or permanently) after having children, are more likely to work part-time to juggle caregiving responsibilities, and generally earn lower wages than men (the GWG). The GPG can therefore be seen as one of the compounded impacts that the GWG has on women’s long-term economic well-being.

“The impacts of the GPG should not be dismissed. Aging in poverty is linked to food insecurity, housing insecurity, and overall poor health outcomes, including higher rates of mortality. As the world commemorated International Day of Older Persons on October 1st with the theme of “Resilience and Contributions of Older Women”, there is no better time to call attention to not only the contributions of women around the world but the need for equal pay, better social protections, and shared domestic work between men and women” states Commissioner Ward.

Quick Facts:

  • A GPG exists in Canada and has not narrowed over time. The GPG was 15% in 1976 and 18% in 2020
  • The gap for private retirement income (such as workplace and personal pensions) for seniors in Canada was 28% between men and women in 2020. This means that for every $1 of private retirement income a senior man received, a senior woman received $0.72
  • Women consistently receive more Old Age Security and Guaranteed Income Supplement than men in Canada. As payment is calculated based on age, marital status and level of income (as opposed to contributions during working years), this may signify that women are consistently receiving lower income during retirement years and therefore qualify for more government support
  • Women in Canada are at an increased risk of living in poverty in old age. The prevalence of women who are 75 years old and over and living with low-income status was 21% compared to 13.9% of men in the same age group
  • When looking at the gap through an intersectional lens, a GPG is observed in all visible minority groups, with the narrowest gap between Japanese women and Caucasian men at 24% and the widest gap between West Asian women and Caucasian men at 64%. In other words, for every $1 that a retired Caucasian man received in Canada, a retired West Asian woman in Canada received $0.36
Ontario Pay Equity Office: Canada’s Gender Wage Gap has narrowed but the Gender Pension Gap has not2023-07-06T20:42:04-05:00

The Gender Wage Gap: Explaining the Unexplained Season Two, Level the Paying Field, Launches April 2023.

In Canada, it’s taken over 20 years to close the gender wage gap by 8%, with 70% of the gap remaining unexplained. While Ontario has had the most advanced pay equity legislation globally for the past 30 years, the gender wage gap persists and from 2016 to 2021 census data, has widened as women’s employment and economic gains are sluggish in a post-COVID labour market.

Building upon the success of season one of the award-winning podcast, Level the Paying Field, season two launches April 25th. Exploring topics related to economics, equity, women, work and wage equity, in this season of Level the Paying Field, the Pay Equity Office (PEO) of Ontario convenes leading experts and renowned researchers to uncover the hidden biases that contribute to unexplained pay gaps.

“Gender bias is pervasive in our society” says Kadie Ward, Commissioner and CAO of the Pay Equity Office. “From who does what work, to parenting, to unpaid care work, we can see gender coded expectations everywhere and these create inequalities generally and in the labour market.”

Through the series, Ontario’s Pay Equity Office seeks to highlight how data and research can seed meaningful conversations around gender inequality and drive change.

“Each of our guests have experience in researching, analysing, creating and adapting policies to help address underlying stereotypes,” says Ward. “We’ve pulled this group of experts together to uncover the invisible drivers of the gender wage gap and, more importantly, shed light on how to confront and eliminate them.”

Join the Pay Equity Office in elevating the equity conversation to make the world a more equitable place for women to work, live and thrive and support closing the gender wage gap.

Watch episodes of Level the Paying Field at www.levelthepayingfield.ca or listen wherever you download your podcasts.

Quick Facts:

  • Level the Paying Field is a six-part video series and podcast series covering topics related to economics, equity, women, work and money and explore the gender wage gap.
  • In 2022 the podcast was recognized with a Gold Quill Award of Merit from the International Assocation of Business Communicators
  • Level the Paying Field ranked in the top 100 podcasts in the Careers category in Canada.
  • The gender wage gap (GWG) is the difference between wages earned by men and wages earned by women. There are different ways to measure the GWG.
  • In Ontario, the GWG calculated on the basis of average hourly wages is 13%. This means that for every $1.00 earned by a male worker, a female worker earns 87 cents. Calculated using average annual salary earnings, the GWG is 25%, or 75 cents on the dollar. The gap is even wider for Indigenous women who earn 61 cents on the dollar, and racialized women who earn 62 cents.
  • Globally, calculated on the basis of average hourly wages, the GWG remains at 18.8%, ranging from 12.6% in low-income countries to 29% in upper middle-income countries.

Also reported in:

Yahoo Finance: The Gender Wage Gap: Explaining the Unexplained Season Two, Level the Paying Field, Launches April 2023 (yahoo.com)

Benzinga: The Gender Wage Gap: Explaining the Unexplained Season Two, Level the Paying Field, Launches April 2023 – Benzinga

Yahoo Finance: The Gender Wage Gap: Explaining the Unexplained Season Two, Level the Paying Field, Launches April 2023 (yahoo.com)

Newswire, FR: L’écart salarial entre les hommes et les femmes : Saison 2 de Équité salariale : Des règles de rémunération équitables! Expliquer l’inexpliqué, débute en avril 2023 (newswire.ca)

Newswire, EN: The Gender Wage Gap: Explaining the Unexplained Season Two, Level the Paying Field, Launches April 2023 (newswire.ca)

One News Page: PR Newswire | One News Page

View the Vibe: News Provided by Cision – View the VIBE Toronto

Bayariq: cision/en (bayariq.net)

TO Times: Canada News Feed provided by Cision – Toronto Times

Canadian Insider: The Gender Wage Gap: Explaining the Unexplained Season Two, Level the Paying Field, Launches April 2023 | Canadian Insider

The Canadian Business Journal: Municipal News, The Canadian Business Journal (cbj.ca)

The Canadian Business Journal: Associations and Unions News, The Canadian Business Journal (cbj.ca)

Toronto Grand Prix Tourist: Toronto Grand Prix Tourist – A Toronto Blog: News provided by Cision – A Toronto Blog

Touki Montreal: Nouvelles fournies par Cision – Touki Montréal (toukimontreal.com)

Passion MTL: Communiqués de presse fournis par Cision * Passion MTL

Canadian Family Net: Canadian Family News ⋆ Canadian Family .net

Fifty Five Plus: News – Fifty-Five Plus Magazine (fifty-five-plus.com)

West Island News: CISION | WestIslandNews (newswire.ca)

Tolerance, EN: Tolerance.ca

Tolerance, FR: Tolerance.ca

TO Times: Canadian News Feed by Cision – Otttimes.ca

Canada Reviews, Features and Deals: PR Newswire – Canada Reviews, Features, and Deals (canadian-reviews.ca)

Masthead: About Us : Masthead Online – Headline News, Careers and Reference for the Canadian Magazine Industry

Core Magazines: Core Culture News – Core Magazines

L’annonceur: L’annonceur | Fil de nouvelles CNW (lannonceur.ca)

Trip Cast 360: TripCast360 – Global Entertainment

Daily Guardian: PR Newswire – Daily Guardian Canada

Biz Reflections: News Updates – BizReflections

Canadian Trends: PR Newswire – Trends in Canada (CA) today (canadiantrends.ca)

La Quarantenaire: Fil d’actualités Cision – La Quarantenaire

Rivers of Living Water Mission: Rivers of Living Water Mission – PR Newswire (rolwms.org)

EPIC EN: Ontario’s Pay Equity Office Released the Second Season of its Award-winning Podcast Series

EPIC FR: Le Bureau de l’équit salariale de l’ontario a lancé la deuxième saison de sa série de balados primée équité salariale

The Gender Wage Gap: Explaining the Unexplained Season Two, Level the Paying Field, Launches April 2023.2023-08-02T12:36:05-05:00

Gender Gaps in Wages and Pensions: A Canadian analysis of how to close them

We need to continue to call to attention to the contributions of women around the world. But we also need equal pay, better social protections and shared domestic work between men and women to address the gender wage gap’s compounding effects and the persistence of the gender pension gap.

Gender Gaps in Wages and Pensions: A Canadian analysis of how to close them2023-07-06T20:42:47-05:00

Ontario’s Pay Equity Office Launches New Legal Resource

The Pay Equity Office is pleased to offer a new resource for compensation specialists, unions, legal professionals, and others who are interested in learning more about pay equity law in Ontario.

The Selected Case Reference Guide is an annotated version of the Pay Equity Act with a curated selection of relevant tribunal and court caselaw presented alongside the section of the Act that it applies to.

Each selection is presented as a short synopsis of the case’s precedent with a link to the source decision on www.CanLii.org. Readers can look up key cases either by browsing to the section of the Act you’re interested in, or by using the Case Index at the end of the Guide.

“We are pleased to offer this valuable new resource to support pay equity practitioners in their understanding of the Pay Equity Act and relevant caselaw”, said Kadie Ward, Commissioner and Chief Administrative Officer of the PEO. “This guide will serve as an efficient reference tool to support employers create their pay equity plans in accordance with the Act.”

This Guide is a living document and will be updated from time to time. We welcome your feedback on the Guide – please send your comments to AskPayEquity@ontario.ca.

Ontario’s Pay Equity Office Launches New Legal Resource2023-07-06T20:42:59-05:00

​Pay Equity Solution for Small Business Do-It-Yourself Toolkit​

What if there was a way you could…

…attract and retain good talent?

…increase productivity and profitability?

…show your employees that you mean it when you say you’re committed to equity and inclusivity?

What if we told you that there is one toolkit that can help you do that?

And that it’s free of charge?

And that it can fit into your busy week?

Introducing the Pay Equity Solution for Small Business -Do-It-Yourself Toolkit, created by Ontario’s Pay Equity Office.

This toolkit will help you analyze your compensation practices and support your business while also complying with Ontario’s Pay Equity Act.​

​Pay Equity Solution for Small Business Do-It-Yourself Toolkit​2023-07-06T20:43:09-05:00

Gender Pension Gap in Canada has not narrowed in 44 years

October 1st marked the UN International Day of Older Persons (UNIDOP), with this year’s theme being “The Resilience and Contributions of Older Women”. Indeed, the contributions of women and older women are often overlooked and undervalued in society. One indicator of this is the increased risk of older women aging in poverty compared to older men.

In Canada, the prevalence of women who are 75 years old and over and living with low-income status was 21% compared to 13.9% of men in the same age group (Statistics Canada, 2020). Further to this, Canada’s Gender Pension Gap (GPG) was observed at 18%[i] in 2020 (Statistics Canada). In other words, for every $1 an older man received in retirement income, an older woman received $0.82. While the gap has fluctuated over the decades, it has ultimately increased by three percent from 15% in 1976 (earliest available data) to 18% in 2020.

No alt text provided for this image

Data source: Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0239-01 Income of individuals by age group, sex and income source, Canada, provinces and selected census metropolitan areas

What is the Gender Pension Gap?

The GPG is the difference between retirement income received by men and retirement income received by women. All around the world, women are receiving smaller pensions than men and Canada is no exception. Similar to many developed countries in the world, the amount one receives from their pension in Canada is heavily dependent on their financial contributions to their pension plan over the course of their working life, with a smaller amount being paid by a state social pension.

Drivers of the Gender Pension Gap

As a largely contributory system, it perhaps comes as no surprise that women in Canada retire with a smaller pension than men as women are more likely to work fewer years than men over the course of their careers as they exit the labour force (either temporarily or permanently) after having children, are more likely to work part-time, and generally earn lower wages than men (what is referred to as the gender wage gap). The GPG can therefore be seen as one of the compounded impacts that the gender wage gap has on women’s long-term economic well-being.

Deeply-seated gender norms still expect women to perform the majority of unpaid domestic work. Women’s dominant role in performing unpaid work limits their ability to participate in full-time paid work, therefore limiting their earnings potential and retirement income. Women’s unpaid labour is critical to the functioning and overall health of the Canadian economy and yet, women’s contributions continue to be under-valued and underpaid, including in Canada’s pension system. As the system mostly compensates those who engage in paid labour, women’s domestic labour is largely ignored and results in women experiencing lower quality retirement (or even poverty) in old age.

As the world commemorates UNIDOP this month, there is no better time to call attention to not only the contributions of women around the world but the need for equal pay, better social protections, and shared domestic work between men and women.

For an in-depth analysis of the Gender Pension Gap, visit https://payequity.gov.on.ca/en/learnmore/pages/gender-pension-gap.aspx

[i] When calculating the difference in income received from Old Age Security and Guaranteed Income Supplement, Canada Pension Plan/Quebec Pension Plan, and Private Retirement Income

Gender Pension Gap in Canada has not narrowed in 44 years2023-07-06T20:43:19-05:00
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